Varietal cannabis seeds are the fruit of a long breeding process
Each cannabis seed has its own characteristics, thanks to which it turns into a plant with individual indicators. When buying seeds, growers focus on their own preferences and financial capabilities. It is necessary to approach the cultivation of seeds responsibly, and without some special knowledge it is impossible to do without.
How to breed hemp seeds
The breeding of new varieties is carried out by breeders who cross different varieties, conduct experiments and examine the obtained samples. The main task is to obtain a plant with the required properties (resistance to low or high temperatures, fungus or mold, shortening the flowering period or providing the possibility of independent flowering). All this is done in laboratories. In a simplified way, this process can be described as follows.
For example, if the goal of the experiment is to obtain a cold-resistant copy, then the sample is crossed with one that already has this ability.
Germinated seeds are planted in the soil and various tests are carried out on it (in this case, they are placed in conditions with reduced temperature).
Selection of phenotypes that received the necessary genes is carried out.
They carry out another crossing (with the father or between themselves) to stabilize the genetics.
When the goal is achieved, the experiment is stopped.
Obtaining the necessary genetic code is a responsible and slow process, but necessary, since the consumer qualities of an adult plant directly depend on which hemp seeds were used and on their genetics.
How to choose marijuana seeds: selection
There are three generations of seeds (first, second and third), which directly affect the production process.
First generation (F1)
These seeds are the best. They have high quality genetics and have been bred from wild or hybrid varieties. In the selection process, the best phenotypes are selected, followed by the cultivation of mother plants, which are then cloned and pollinated. As a result, the generation of F1 seeds is obtained, which gives a strong and durable material that is especially valued by growers. This is the so-called standard of quality, produced by seed banks with a world name, which includes hemp seeds from Holland.
Second (F2) and third (F3) generations
Such types of hemp seeds (especially F3) can rarely be found in seed bank collections, they are mainly cultivated by growers themselves. As a result of crossing the seeds of the first generation with each other, F2 seeds are obtained, which, in turn, are crossed again to produce the F3 generation. Of course, parental qualities are generally preserved, but stability becomes lower and no one will be able to predict what properties will appear in future plants. In addition, resistance, yield and cannabinoid content decrease, especially in the third generation.
The main types of cannabis seeds
Seeds are determined by their sex and the way they bloom, and the properties, characteristics of cultivation and care, as well as yield depend on this.
Based on the sexual characteristics, the seeds are:
- Regular, which give both female and male plants. In the second case, pollen is formed, which is not always welcomed by growers. There are no inflorescences on male individuals, they play a role only in the creation of offspring (that is, in the cultivation of own varieties).
- Feminized, with a 99% presence of only female individuals and a crop of cones with a high THC content.
According to the method of transition to flowering, the types of marijuana seeds are divided into:
- Photoperiodic, the flowering of which depends on the lighting. When the daylight hours are shortened, the plant receives a signal about the onset of winter, the formation of offspring (flowering) begins. If the plant is grown indoors, vegetation can be maintained for a long time, allowing the sprout to increase in size.
- Autoflowering cannabis seeds that are not affected by lighting. In such plants, the onset of the flowering phase is genetically determined and occurs upon reaching a certain age. The life cycle of such plants is strictly limited and cannot be changed. They bring a harvest for a short period, but its value is very high. Autoflowering varieties have Ruderalis genes, which increase the immunity of plants, making them very resistant and unpretentious.
How to choose hemp seeds: what characteristics should you focus on
- Flowering period. It is understood as the period of time during which the crop ripens. The countdown begins at the beginning of flowering, ends with harvest. Growers who are eager to harvest as soon as possible are especially interested in this characteristic.
- Productivity (productivity). Each plant cannot produce more than what is genetically built into it. When growing hemp for commercial purposes, this characteristic is in the first place.
- Growing conditions. Some seeds cannot grow indoors, others, on the contrary, in open ground. However, mostly cannabis seeds grow well in both conditions.
- THC content. It is this indicator that affects the strength with which the finished product will affect the body. More powerful cones are formed on plants with a high percentage of THC.
- Growth, that is, the minimum and maximum height of bushes growing from seeds. When growing in a growbox, this indicator is very important, as it is necessary to know in advance whether the plant will be cramped and whether it will be able to develop normally.
- Champion seeds. They have truly stunning genetics that guarantee a stable and excellent result with high organoleptic qualities. At various festivals and competitions, such seeds invariably arouse increased interest and general recognition.
Seeds for beginner growers. As a rule, plants from such seed material are unpretentious, even novice gardeners can grow them without problems.